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Contents:
  1. KIRA, The Path | La Voie
  2. Mark Schemes for the Units January Advanced GCE A2 H Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS H
  3. Mark Schemes for the Units January 2010: Advanced GCE A2 H534 Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS H134

The Seanad has a bit of a description of the Working Group Report to back up your argument. These are my Tort Law notes for second year of University. They all include the relevant case law descriptions to back up your answers. The language used in The language used in notes is easy to understand and it has certain code-words to make your learning effective and easier Notes are suitable for 1st year - 4th year. Written by an eventual first class Law graduate, these extensive bullet points outline an essay which debates whether there really Written by an eventual first class Law graduate, these extensive bullet points outline an essay which debates whether there really is a right to silence in English Criminal Evidence Law.

The notes cover the law as it stands at the start of with reference to some key academic sources. These notes contain all the key information to answer an Unfair Dismissal question on an undergraduate Employment Law Course. They have been heavily condensed so only the relevant and key information is given. The notes are also structured towards the order in which a problem question would be answered, with all the key tests outlined.

Using these notes, I went on to achieve a first class Law degree at the University of Sheffield. The information given is what I perceived to be correct in May This structured essay plan explores and contrasts the uses and limitations of both Criminal Statistics and Victimisation Surveys. Using this The information is what I perceived to be correct as of May The differences between Grand Jury and Preliminary Hearings.

Defines: prima facie case, Speedy Trials, 4th and 8th Amendment as it relates and bail considerations. A full set of revision notes for the first year module of Contract Law at Durham University from They include theories of contract, forming an agreement, contract terms, unfair contract terms, vitiating factors, discharge by performance, breach of contract, and remedies. These are my lecture slides and notes for the Public Law class, they are very detailed and up to date, These are my lecture slides and notes for the Public Law class, they are very detailed and up to date, from The notes are suitable for PhD, 1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year and contains the full module with examples and lots of detail.

I received a for my Law degree. The act of investing in Housing co-operative is only the first step towards the investment of capital. In order to In order to achieve its objective the Housing co-operative enterprises must be successfully and profitably operated as a business. Has definitions and key points of each chapter. Topics include democracy, the American Revolution, federalism, interest groups, political party identification, and much more.

This document includes an entire semester of notes on topics This document includes an entire semester of notes on topics ranging from pre-socratic philosophers to the nature and constitution of arguments and logical fallacies and sophistical tricks. Some parts of these notes are more entertaining than your average textbook, and all aim to be as clear and verbatim to the professor's words as possible. Additionally, included in this PDF is a comprehensive study guide which consists of hundreds of questions taken directly from the notes themselves.

It covers almost every piece of material presented and has an answer key provided. This is to help you widen your knowledge and also prepare you for exams in the topic of products liability This is to help you widen your knowledge and also prepare you for exams in the topic of products liability under torts. A detailed work consisting of equitable maxims, required throughout the module and also very useful for problem questions.

Contains work Contains work from three different sources so very accurate! For students studying Equity and Trusts any level. Detailed description of a nature of a trust, the different type of trust and how to distinguish between a trust Detailed description of a nature of a trust, the different type of trust and how to distinguish between a trust and a power.

There is a detailed description of the different types of powers. Very clear and precise as the information has been used from three or four different sources. Detailed work consisting of the three certainties - explained clearly and precisely. Very easy to understand and have provided the Very easy to understand and have provided the use of cases, the facts of the case and the legal principles in the case. There are more cases for the three certainties which I have typed very clearly.

I have also written about what happens when there is one of more of the three certainties absent. I hope you enjoy it as much as I enjoyed typing the notes up :. Transitional Justice: these notes are basically a summary version of what the authorities like Freeman and Pensky, Schabas, Orentlicher etc. Criminal Court. If you are a beginner perfect to help you get ahead, and if specializing in the area will save up a lot of your effort in reading all these authors. The information that are provided in the notes are related to company law this is just a basic An A2 Level essay answer to the question 'to what extent have the conservatives under Cameron moved to the ideological An A2 Level essay answer to the question 'to what extent have the conservatives under Cameron moved to the ideological right on law and order policy?

This was written late A full A level answer to how representative is Westminster Parliament? An evaluation of the strengths of the UKs uncodified constitution. This is an answer to an Edexcel A Level Government Roughly about two pages long. They're only a few sentences on the third page. This class is a requirement to get an administration of justice degree.

This course covers selected topics in substantive criminal law: principles underlying the definition of crime such as the requirements of This course covers selected topics in substantive criminal law: principles underlying the definition of crime such as the requirements of actus reus and mens rea and general doctrines such as ignorance of fact and ignorance of law, causation, attempt, complicity and conspiracy. Principles of justification and excuse are examined with particular attention to the doctrines of necessity, intoxication, insanity, diminished capacity and automatism.

The substantive offense of homicide is extensively reviewed, and from time to time other offenses such as theft. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the basic theory of the criminal law and the relationship between doctrines and the various justifications for imposition of punishment. Essays cover - To what extent has the prime minister become more of a presidential figure? Answers the following questions - 1.

Research the current work of one committee - Justice Committee 3. How effective are committees in scrutinising the work of the government? Based on UK government and Politics. The notes were written with much diligence and has captured the main points that students should take note on for the exam. Hopefully these notes help. Good Luck! I achieved the highest grade possible in this assignment in Level 3 Uniformed Public Services, , Responding to emergency incidents I achieved the highest grade possible in this assignment in Level 3 Uniformed Public Services, , Responding to emergency incidents.

This is the entire report which i got the highest grade possible for, in Level 3 Uniformed Public Services I achieved all the criteria for this and my tutor recommended it to the class to learn from. It also has some practise questions as well as a full answer to see what a good answer may look like.

This is A2 notes on AQA's law 03 paper, it does not include the evaluation question notes. It includes; Muder, It includes; Muder, Diminished responsibility, Loss of control, Unlawful Act Manslaughter, Gross negligence manslaughter, assault, battery, ahh, gbh s. This is my Business Enterprise outline 69 pages - I This is my Business Enterprise outline 69 pages - I received an A in the class.

It is a quick and dirty overview of all of the important topics on the BAR exam. This is my Family law outline I received an A in This is my Family law outline I received an A in this class. This is my Professional Responsibility outline 55 pages -I received an This is my Professional Responsibility outline 55 pages -I received an A in this class.

Covers Topics Such as: What is law? They contain information on Key Legislative They contain information on Key Legislative Policies and Initiatives in Ireland and how they impact on children, families and the childcare sector. I received a distinction for the full module of which these notes form a part. Chapter 1 notes providing basic information for students on the topic of the history of US food regulation. Suitable for Suitable for 1st-4th year students new to, or wanting to review food regulation development in the US.

Fortin, JD. Notes on offer and acceptance within a contract. Aimed at 1st years. Looks at the different types of offer and Looks at the different types of offer and acceptance and when a withdrawal of a contract can occur. Includes all relevant cases with full details on the cases. Exam ready detailed notes for either Law and Government, or an administrative law course.

They are up to date as Written by a third year law student at the Univeristy of Glasgow. Exam ready detailed notes including cases with summaries of the labour law or employment law course. Written by a third Written by a third year law student at the University of Glasgow. Used to write an essay awarded a grade B , and for the overall exam.

Extremely detailed notes on the course of jurisprudence. Includes theorists such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx and Webber. Written by a Written by a student at the university of Glasgow, obtaining a grade B for this subject. Detailed notes on the legal systems of Scotland and the UK. Great for background knowledge or for the exam. Written by a third year student at the University of Glasgow who obtained a grade B in the exam using these notes. Detailed exam ready notes for the course of delict or tort, including cases with summaries. Written by a third year Written by a third year student at the University of Glasgow who obtained a grade B, using these notes.

Detailed notes on the criminal law and evidence course. Contains cases and all of the necessary terminology. Detailed notes on the complete business organisations course, covering: agency, partnerships, companies and their debts. Up to date as of Written by a third year law student at the University of Glasgow, obtaining a grade B using these notes. By Neal D. Brief notes covering what is considered to be a food etc. Suitable for those studying food regulation, food technology, nutrition or dietetics. A detailed and comprehensive set of notes covering the English Criminal law.

Notes are aimed at students studying at an Notes are aimed at students studying at an undergraduate level. Topics Include; Relevant Law, why use Topics include; Parties to the convention, expulsion Topics Include; International Conventions, Scope of the Topics Include; Instances of Cooperations, Advantages of Head Topics Include; Each above topic has subsections below it, with cases, law and explanation.

Head Topics Include; Components Please Note: I am not taking credit for the wording of the cases, case summaries were sourced from online sources. Head Topics A four-and-a-half page essay with citations pertaining the founding fathers and the writing of the United States Constitution. LLB Law Degree essay analysing the role and significance governing the rule of law principle in the British constitution.

LLB Law degree essay evaluating the means in which the judiciary validate the formation of contract based on intention to LLB Law degree essay evaluating the means in which the judiciary validate the formation of contract based on intention to form a contract. LLB Law degree essay evaluating subjective and objective tests to recklessness within the criminal law. The essay covers strengths and The essay covers strengths and weaknesses of both approaches and finalizes with the often preferred or most satisfactory approach to determining recklessness.

These notes involve information focused on the Criminal Justice system. It goes into in-depth detail about the advantages and disadvantages It goes into in-depth detail about the advantages and disadvantages that entail the Criminal Justice System. It has many concepts, scenarios and theories that can be helpful in real-life. This class is mean't for third year students but can notes can easily assist any year.

This class was Criminal Justice for Sociology. Dewey focuses on the theories of Democracy in the Western Sphere and are notes derived from the book, Theories of Dewey focuses on the theories of Democracy in the Western Sphere and are notes derived from the book, Theories of Democracy,. Dewey focuses on the theories of Democracy in the Western Sphere and are notes derived from the book "Theories of Taught by Dr. This is for a media law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and This is for a media law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and simply applying what I had learnt.

It covers all aspects of the subject to achieve the highest possible mark. This is for a corporate law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and This is for a corporate law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and simply applying what I had learnt. This is for a employment law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and This is for a employment law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and simply applying what I had learnt.

This is for a family law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and This is for a family law unit - I achieved a first class honours degree by memorising these notes and simply applying what I had learnt. The notes cover the most important details for all Civil SGS sessions.

The price is very competitive considering it will save you the weeks of time it took me to put it together! It is also easy to edit should you wish to update any information. This is written at university level and covers the debate as to whether the voluntary sector should be included in This is written at university level and covers the debate as to whether the voluntary sector should be included in the rehabilitation of offenders. LLB law revision notes from my this year in for the topic of Law of Succession for the Requirements LLB law revision notes from my this year in for the topic of Law of Succession for the Requirements of a valid Will.

Please keep in mind, I got a first in this topic under my Law Degree. These notes our from my third year in Please keep in mind, that I received a first in this area. Third year law degree notes from These notes helped to get a first in this area. Focuses on the area Focuses on the area of construction of Wills. I highlighted and maintained a structure I highlighted and maintained a structure throughout to keep it neat and simple to follow. Madison Eakin v. Raub Martine v. Hunter's Lessee Ex Hunter's Lessee Ex parte mcCardle Muskrat v.

US and so on. This essay received full marks and describes the powers the police This essay received full marks and describes the powers the police have to search someone on the street including the Acts of Parliament. Unit 4, A-Level law. Notes on the Justice system and the argument on whether or not the legal system can be argued as just Notes on the Justice system and the argument on whether or not the legal system can be argued as just or unjust. For A-Level law, Unit 4 second year. Used to achieve an A Grade in AS Thoroughly proof read and extremely easy to navigate.

Up to date with any case law before If necessary, some if not all of the subject bullet points can also be put together in order to make an essay, though some connections will be required. An A grade model answer for the exam question on arbitration. For UK law students at AS level, this is For UK law students at AS level, this is part of the alternative dispute resolution part of the exam.

For A grade model answers on all questions message me: fraserhs on twitter. Part of the judicial precedent Part of the judicial precedent section of the exam. For more A grade model answers message me: fraserhs on twitter. These are the structured notes I made to help me answer problem questions on Sexual History Evidence.

They contain They contain all the latest legal rules along with discussion of various issues. I used these notes to revise for my Criminal Evidence exam, in which I got a mark of These are the notes that I used for my Criminal Evidence exam. They cover the rules regarding competence and compellability They cover the rules regarding competence and compellability including in depth analysis of the law regarding spouses. I used these notes to revise for my exam, in which I got This is the essay that I submitted as part of the assessment for the module 'Crime Law and History' in This is the essay that I submitted as part of the assessment for the module 'Crime Law and History' in which I got a mark of The essay covers some of the evidence that violence has been in decline since the medieval period using murder statistics from a variety of sources.

It then goes on to speculate on the reasons for this decline, drawing on some of the key academic commentary in this area. The essay is well referenced and received extremely positive feedback from my Professor. These are the notes that I used to revise for my Criminal Law exam. They contain analysis of all the They contain analysis of all the key cases and legislation, along with some of the debate surrounding the topic. These are the notes that I used to revise prior to my Criminal Law exam, in which I scored These are the notes that I used to revise prior to my Criminal Law exam, in which I scored 75 on the sexual offences problem question.

These are the notes I made to answer a Classicism essay on my Criminology exam. They cover classicism as a They cover classicism as a concept, strengths, weaknesses and its impact on criminal justice today. Using these notes, I gained a mark of 81 overall on the exam paper. These notes outline an essay on Left and Right Realism - philosophies that had particular relevance in the s and These notes outline an essay on Left and Right Realism - philosophies that had particular relevance in the s and 80s. The notes outline the key features of both Right and Left Realism, before comparing and contrasting both philosophies and giving examples of them in practice.

These are the last notes I made before my exam, in which I scored 84 on the Realism question. I used these notes when revising Wrongful Dismissal for any problem question that could come up in the exam. They cover aspects such as whether a wrongful dismissal has taken place, and if so, the remedies that could be available. These are the notes I used for my Employment Law exam and cover the rules on identifying the employment status These are the notes I used for my Employment Law exam and cover the rules on identifying the employment status of an individual.

This is a key part of the module as it crops up in other areas, such as equality and dismissal. These are the notes that I used when revising for my Equity and Trusts exam in second year. They cover They cover the key cases and legislation, set out in a structured way to enable confidence in answering problem questions.

These are the notes that I used to revise for my EU Law exam. They contain all the key cases They contain all the key cases and legislation, along with debate surrounding some of the main concepts. A bundle is available containing this document and others separate EU law topics. These are the complete notes that I used to revise for my EU Law exam. They contain all the key These are the notes that I took as part of my Family Law module and used to revise for the These are the notes that I took as part of my Family Law module and used to revise for the assessment, in which I scored a good First Class mark.

The notes are easy to follow and well structured, with cases and academic commentary highlighted throughout. These are the notes that I took as part of my Family Law module and used to revised for the These are the notes that I took as part of my Family Law module and used to revised for the assessment, in which I scored a good First Class mark. These are my notes that I used to revise for my exam on Political Philosophy. They cover Liberalism from the They cover Liberalism from the Rawls and Dworkin perspective, before contrasting each philosophy and putting them in a political perspective.

These are my notes which I used to revise for my Political Philosophy exam. They cover the theory of utilitarianism, They cover the theory of utilitarianism, giving in depth analysis and criticism, and contrasting it with alternative political philosophies. These are the final notes I made before the exam, and outline community penalties as a mode of punishment. Using key sources, the essay explores the philosophy of community penalties, along with workability and effectiveness compared to other modes of punishment.

Using these notes, I went on to achieve 72 overall in the exam. These are the final notes I made before my exam, in which I achieved a good First. They outline the They outline the use of fines as a method of punishment and cover in depth the issues surrounding their use. These are the notes I made to answer any structured question on the early release of prisoners. They cover the They cover the law as it stands, with some key arguments for and against. These are the final notes I made, and using them I went on to achieve a good First in the exam.

These in depth notes cover the topic of penal privatisation and its prevalence in the UK. They chronologically cover the They chronologically cover the growing sourcing out of penal services and some of the arguments for and against - all backed up by evidence and academic commentary. These were the final notes I made before my exam, in which I scored a good First.

This is the essay This is the essay that I submitted as part of my assessment, where I went on to get a mark of This is the case critique that I did as part of the assessment for my 1st year Understanding Law module. I got a first class mark for this piece of work, and for the module overall. This is about Alternative Dispute Resolution in a way of resolving disputes instead of using litigation. The different types of The different types of Alternative Dispute Resolution, evaluation, compare and contrast and summary.

This explains the process of making an act of parliament, explains manifesto, how law is made, legislative procedure, parliamentary stages, This explains the process of making an act of parliament, explains manifesto, how law is made, legislative procedure, parliamentary stages, royal assent and beyond, delegated legislation and types of delegated legislation, statutory instruments, bylaws, control by parliament, control by judiciary, advantages and disadvantages of delegation legislation.

Legal aid for civil cases, types of legal aid, cases you can get legal aid for and cases than you Legal aid for civil cases, types of legal aid, cases you can get legal aid for and cases than you cannot. Financial conditions for legal aid, legal aid if you have capital, repaying solicitor costs, legal aid for criminal cases, types of legal aides for criminal cases, help with representation at court, advocacy assistance, court fees, types of help with legal aid, complaints about legal aid, stages of complaints about legal aid, legal aid cuts, human rights, why and why not legal aid should be cut, legal aid; what is changing.


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This is an essay i wrote about Death Penalty and how it relates to Canada. It explains what death penalty It explains what death penalty is and connects it to the catholic church and parables. Detailed notes on the substance of the International Criminal Law module at the University of Nottingham. Notes largely derived from Criminology class reading notes for theories such as Concentric Zone theory and Cultural theories social ecology theories as well. Very detailed. I am studying Law at the University of Warwick.

This would be aimed at 1st or 2nd year law students. These notes cover all you need to know about European Court of Justice - competences, structure of the court and the powers it has annulment, infringement procedure and preliminary ruling procedure. I am a Law student at the University of Warwick. This is This is aimed at any level studying American Politics. Formation of the Contract II. Transfer of property to the buyer III.

Risk of Loss IV. Mistake and frustration of contract V. Transfer of title VI. Delivery of the Delivery of the goods VII. Acceptance of the goods. Difference between civil service and public service 2. These notes were taken for a second year course at ELTE. They cover all elements of democracy - liberal democracy, They cover all elements of democracy - liberal democracy, illiberal democracy, constitutional liberalism, liberal autocracy, populism, post democracy, the democratic moment, associo-deliberative democracy, the radical right, the democratic deficit, campaign activity and liquid democracy.

These notes were taken from both textbooks and lectures at the University of Warwick for the Constitutional and Administrative Law These notes were taken from both textbooks and lectures at the University of Warwick for the Constitutional and Administrative Law course. It covers the entire course and is clear and succinct. These notes were taken at the University of Warwick from textbooks and lectures. They cover the entire Law of Contract They cover the entire Law of Contract course and helped me to achieve a high 2.

This was taken at the University of Warwick from both textbooks and lectures. Helped me to pass with a high Helped me to pass with a high 2. Covers the entire course. Great set of notes for any property law class - provides descriptions of key cases and broad outline of pertinent Great set of notes for any property law class - provides descriptions of key cases and broad outline of pertinent laws.

Taken for a property law course in law school.

This essay talks about intellectual property in general, and also includes examples of Kosovo violation of this law. The private sector is one of the main forces which influence economic growth and creating jobs. In this way is also In this way is also one of the key drivers which has an impact on increasing the quality of living conditions. However, in this paper I will explain what the role of the government is in regards to an economy which concentrates on economic growth from the private sector perspective.

I think, although debatable, that we have empirical and theoretical evidence that suggest that private sector is more efficient than the public sector. Based on this premise one would, quite rationally, ask why the need for government. However, in some fields of work the public sector is a must, e. I will try to explain why the government has a critical role not just in the public sector but also when it comes to private sector led economies.

The themes are analyzed from the A table showing the advantages and disadvantages of negotiation, mediation, conciliation and arbitration. A detailed and extensive set of notes on alcohol related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all A detailed and extensive set of notes on alcohol related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Assault related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all A detailed and extensive set of notes on Assault related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Blackmail and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers A detailed and extensive set of notes on Blackmail and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A table showing the key facts about the aims of sentencing for the UK. A detailed and extensive set of notes on bladed articles and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it A detailed and extensive set of notes on bladed articles and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Burglary and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers A detailed and extensive set of notes on Burglary and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A table showing the facts about the literal rule, the golden rule and the mischief rule. UK Statutory Interpretation. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Child protection and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Child protection and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

KIRA, The Path | La Voie

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Criminal attempts and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Criminal attempts and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Criminal damage and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Criminal damage and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Fraud and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it A detailed and extensive set of notes on Fraud and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Geographic profiling, FDNA and related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Geographic profiling, FDNA and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

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Mark Schemes for the Units January Advanced GCE A2 H Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS H

A detailed and extensive set of notes on going equipped and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on going equipped and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Handling stolen goods and its related offences , taken from my A detailed and extensive set of notes on Handling stolen goods and its related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on public order and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it A detailed and extensive set of notes on public order and related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Robbery and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it A detailed and extensive set of notes on Robbery and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Theft and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Theft and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on TWOK and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it A detailed and extensive set of notes on TWOK and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

This is a short introduction into contract law and how an offer is made. I will be uploading a more I will be uploading a more descriptive notes on offers. A comprehensive paper that offers ethical, logical and biblical arguments against capital punishment. It is a core module and has all It is a core module and has all the information in brief notes for the exam. All topics are included. BPP University. Includes topics such as: Acquisitions, Companies, Directors and Shareholders, Insolvency, Allotment and Transfer of Shares, Corporate Finance and specifically for LPC students, a draft skeleton for a procedure plan with additional information for the procedure plan at the end of each topic.

Comprehensive set of notes for the Legal Practice Course. It is a core practice area and contains all topics required It is a core practice area and contains all topics required for the module. They are excellent revision notes. BPP University They are set out in a clear and structured way. Comprehensive, structured and clear notes for the Legal Practice Course.

It is a core practice area. Contains all topics required Contains all topics required of the module. Very helpful notes. Contains all topics covered in the module and exam. Very good, Very good, structured and clear revision notes. A comprehensive Research on the ethical, logical and biblical arguments against Capital Punishment. They are presented in an easy to read and understand table and colour coded as to whether they were positive or negative for African American Civil Rights.

A great revision aid or start point for more detail research. The distinction between capital and income; The constitutional dimension; Tax Administration; Income tax appeals system; Tax Avoidance. Notes include information about hiring staff, maintaining staff and terminating stuff, along with all the processes involved in each.

Also includes An essay which was rewarded 75 overall 1st Class with arguments for and against the labelling theory in Criminology. Full set of references. A detailed and extensive set of notes on acts likely to stir up racial hatred and any related offences , A detailed and extensive set of notes on acts likely to stir up racial hatred and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on protection from harassment and any related offences , taken from my Policing A detailed and extensive set of notes on protection from harassment and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on Controlled substances and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, A detailed and extensive set of notes on Controlled substances and any related offences , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

A detailed and extensive set of notes on Bad character evidence and its function in UK law , taken from A detailed and extensive set of notes on Bad character evidence and its function in UK law , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing. A detailed and extensive set of notes on the role of a legal advisor in UK law , taken from A detailed and extensive set of notes on the role of a legal advisor in UK law , taken from my Policing course, it covers all required aspects of it in UK law and policing.

Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p1 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p1 of the command and control module. Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p2 of the command of control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p2 of the command of control module.

Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p3 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p3 of the command and control module. Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p4 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p4 of the command and control module.

Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p5 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p5 of the command and control module. Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p6 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers p6 of the command and control module.

Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers M2 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers M2 of the command and control module. Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers M3 of the command and control Directly from my public services course which I achieved maximum marks in, this covers M3 of the command and control module.

This is a lecture notes on criminal law whereby you can obtain a comprehensive knowledge about what is criminal This is a lecture notes on criminal law whereby you can obtain a comprehensive knowledge about what is criminal law and how does it works with current system. This is a law specially designed for those who are studying law of contract.

You can have a comprehensive knowledge about You can have a comprehensive knowledge about how to write a good contract and abide by the law. These notes will provide a These notes will provide a comprehensive coverage of the lecture materials required for this half year module. Key vocabulary terms related to comparative politics described in depth, with particular attention to the nature of U.

Introductory notes for the study of International Affairs. Part of the statutory interpretation part of Part of the statutory interpretation part of the exam. For UK students at AS level studying law. An A grade model answer for the AS level exam question "Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the literal rule". This is for UK AS level students studying law and is part of the statutory interpretation part of the course.

An A grade model answer for the 10 mark exam question on the golden rule's advantages and disadvantages. For UK For UK AS level students. This is part of the statutory interpretation section of the AS level law course. An A grade model answer for the 10 mark exam question on the purposive approach's meaning.

This is for AS This is for AS level students in the UK studying law. This essay is part of the statutory interpretation section of the course. A n A grade 10 mark model answer for the mischief rule's advantages and disadvantages. For UK AS students studying For UK AS students studying law. This is part of the statutory interpretation section of the course. Which includes; Definition of contract, Nature of contract law, Types of contract, Offer willingness Which includes; What it is about, Types of employment contract, Distinction between an employee Which includes; What it is about, Types of employment contract, Distinction between an employee and an independent contractor, Definition of employee, Importance of employment contract, etc.

Which includes; Definition of acceptance, Silence, Acceptance subject to contract, Acceptance of tender, Which includes; Definition of acceptance, Silence, Acceptance subject to contract, Acceptance of tender, Counter offer, Request for information, Refusal, Communication of acceptance postal rule, cross-offer, unilateral contract, collateral contract, etc.

Sale of Goods Act Communication of acceptance. I achieved I achieved 1st class in this module. The notes cover all the core topics that are contained in the module. They are very detailed: leading cases with all the facts and judgements, main principles, commentaries from academic articles etc. The notes are very detailed: contain all leading cases with full facts and judgements, main principles, commentaries of academics, quotes from academic journals etc.

I achieved I achieved in this module. These notes are very detailed: contain all leading cases with facts and judgements, all relevant statutes, principles, academic commentaries etc. I achieved 1st The notes are very detailed: contain all leading cases, statutes, main principles and academic commentaries.

This is the full set of notes for the business law A subject studied at University of Nottingham. Includes many Includes many different examples of cases with full explanations. These notes are made up of both lectures and other sources. Helped me to achieve a 1st in this subject. These notes were taken in These notes are aimed at 1st year students who are taking any kind of introductory law course.

For example, I For example, I study social care and am required to take an introductory law course. These are in depth notes about studying Case Law and extremely exhaustive piece about Judicial Precedent. I wrote these notes I wrote these notes in 1st year but these would be suitable for anyone who is studying Case Law. Notes discuss and relate to consent to medical procedures and the issues surrounding the mentally incapacitated and children Final year Notes discuss and relate to consent to medical procedures and the issues surrounding the mentally incapacitated and children Final year law degree Medical law Consent.

Second year law module notes which achieved a first discussing all relevant case law and statute in relation to breach Second year law module notes which achieved a first discussing all relevant case law and statute in relation to breach of trusts and defences.

Including critical points to consider. These notes are for University students from Year 1- years 3 who are pursuing studies in Business and or Legal These notes are for University students from Year 1- years 3 who are pursuing studies in Business and or Legal Studies.

It contains information on Sexual orientation Discrimination in the workplace,. Detailed Employment Law Notes - Updated Includes notes from Includes notes from lectures, integrated with A.

Criminal Law - Theft

L Davies textbook notes. They are dated from May and are appropriate for any undergraduate student studying family law. Notes based on the concept of equality and the definition of direct discrimination Final year law degree discrimination employment. All key cases and statute from a 3rd year All key cases and statute from a 3rd year law degree module obtained using these notes.

Discussion of all key concepts in relation to specific discrimination including all relevant case law and statute 3rd year law module Discussion of all key concepts in relation to specific discrimination including all relevant case law and statute 3rd year law module obtained. A full discussion on the law surrounding Harassment including key cases and statutory references 3rd year law degree module obtained A full discussion on the law surrounding Harassment including key cases and statutory references 3rd year law degree module obtained.

In-depth notes over topics covered in a typical government 2 class. Condensed notes on Negligence in the Law of Tort. Simplified for a 1st year and Summarized enough for a 4th Where appropriate candidates will be able to elaborate with some citation of relevant statutes and caselaw. Ability to analyse most of the more obvious points central to the question or identify the main points of law in issue. Ability to develop arguments or apply points of law mechanically to a given factual situation, and reach a conclusion.

A good ability to present logical and coherent arguments and communicates relevant material in a clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. There will be some elaboration of the principles, and where appropriate with limited reference to relevant statutes and caselaw. Ability to explain some of the more obvious points central to the question or identify some of the points of law in issue. A limited ability to produce arguments based on their material or limited ability to apply points of law to a given factual situation, but without a clear focus or conclusion.

An adequate ability to present logical and coherent arguments and communicates relevant material in a reasonably clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. There will be limited points of detail, but accurate citation of relevant statutes and caselaw will not be expected. Ability to explain at least one of the simpler points central to the question or identify at least one of the points of law in issue.

A limited attempt to present logical and coherent arguments and communicates relevant material in a limited manner using some appropriate legal terminology. When using the mark scheme the points made are merely those that a wellprepared candidate would be likely to make. Answers which contain no relevant material at all will receive no marks. This mark scheme contains indicative content but it is not exhaustive or prescriptive.

It should be used alongside the matrix of levels of assessment and live exemplar standardisation scripts which cover a range of responses identifying where within a level of assessment a particular response lies. Examiners are required to use the indicative content of the mark schemes only in conjunction with the matrix of levels of assessment as informed by actual responses in the standardisation scripts. Examiners should not be drawn prescriptively and quantitatively to the content of the mark scheme when marking candidates responses and should follow the specific guidance provided by the Principal Examiner in terms of breadth and depth of responses.

Appropriate credit will be given for nonstandard answers. Describe the Article reference procedure using the Source and other cases to illustrate your answer. Assessment Objective 3 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate relevant material in a clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. G Mark Scheme January 19 b Using the Source, consider whether any of the following would have a claim against their employers for a failure to comply with a Directive: i Millie, an employee of a recently privatised former state owned company.

Recognise that the state controlled the business recently and therefore it is still connected to the state. In the case of ii recognise that a local authority is to be regarded as an arm of the state and it would be possible to use the concept of vertical direct effect to enforce rights conferred for an unimplemented directive. Carla therefore can take action. In the case of iii recognise that the circus is not connected to the state and that directives do not have horizontal direct effect therefore Amanda cannot take action against her employer.

Recognise the possibility of suing the member state for compensation. Describe the literal rule using the Source and other cases to illustrate your answer. Identify that the literal rule involves the judge applying the literal rule even if it results in absurdity Lord Esher in R v Judge of the City of London Describe the historical dominance of the literal rule. Describe how this rule respects parliamentary supremacy.

G Mark Scheme January 23 b Using the Source, identify and explain the most suitable intrinsic or extrinsic aids that could be used in the following situations: i The House of Lords is considering an ambiguous word. The meaning of this word was discussed by Parliament during the passage of the Bill. This Act was based on the Law Commissions recommendations. There are notes inserted into the Act by a draftsman. Explain that it is a record of Parliamentary debates. Explain that it can only be used if it satisfies the conditions laid down in Pepper v Hart Explain that if it does not satisfy these conditions it cannot be used.

In the case of ii recognise that the most appropriate extrinsic aid would be law reform reports as the Law Commission is a law reform agency. Refer to the Black Clawson case which relaxed the rules regarding the use of law reform reports or any other relevant case. In the case of iii recognise that the most appropriate intrinsic aid would be marginal notes. Explain they are not part of the Act and are inserted by the draftsman. Explain that traditionally marginal notes were not regarded as legitimate to use. Outline the four conditions discussed in that case.

Explain that the judge should look at the gap or mischief that the Act was intended to cover and interpret the Act to cover that gap. Explain that the mischief rule is similar to the purposive approach. Credit reference to the source. A discussion of the following disadvantages: the reliance on extrinsic aids and their associated problems; that the use of this rule is limited due to the purposive approach; the fact that this rule can be seen as unconstitutional; the rule relies on a preamble which most modern Acts no longer use.

Where appropriate candidates will be able to elaborate by good citation to relevant statutes and caselaw. Ability to develop clear arguments or apply points of law clearly to a given factual situation and reach a sensible and informed conclusion. A limited ability to produce arguments based on their material or limited ability to apply points of law to a given factual situation but without a clear focus or conclusion. There will be limited points of detail, but accurate citation of relevant statutes and case law will not be expected.

G Mark Scheme January 27 G Criminal Law The mark scheme must be read in conjunction with the matrix of levels of assessment. The points made in the scheme are merely those which a wellprepared candidate would be likely to make. The current law on both intention and recklessness is uncertain and unjust. Critically evaluate the accuracy of this statement. Explain recklessness: Level of mens rea lower than intention Human state of mind in that it is unjustified risktaking Originally a subjective test Cunningham Revised into an objective test Caldwell Reversion to a subjective test G and R Implications of that decision, especially in the context of criminal damage Development of subjective reckless manslaughter Lidar Developments in gross negligence manslaughter Adomako Proposals of the Law Commission in relation to involuntary manslaughter Use any other relevant cases.

G Mark Scheme January 29 Assessment Objective 2 20 Discuss any or all of the following areas with regard to intention: Crucial in differentiating offences on the basis of fault Problems of proving what was in a defendants mind and the meaning of probability and foresight In murder intention leads to a mandatory life sentence and significant stigma for the defendant juries may be reticent to deliver such a verdict Intention is often a common sense test is this a suitable way to decide fault?

There can be uncertainty and injustice based on the facts as juries see some kinds of cases as worse than others Will reform make the concept of fault clearer? Should intention mean direct intent only? Potential blurring with recklessness Does the change from infer to find represent an alteration in the law?

Should a foreseen consequence be intention rather than evidence of it? Discuss any or all of the following areas with regard to recklessness: Focus on a subjective test makes a defendant take responsibility and so it is easier to say they are at fault Problems of public protection if risktaking is assessed subjectively Lack of fault when recklessness was assessed objectively Potential problem of having the most common level of mens rea taking account of all characteristics of the defendant when other areas, notably the defence of provocation, are becoming rather more objective in assessment The ease with which a defendant may now avoid liability and fault The problem of fairness, especially for victims and their families Is there deterrence if a defendant need only say they did not see a risk?

In some areas, such as the defence of intoxication, fault is attributed on the basis of public policy rather than subjective recklessness. Candidates are unlikely to achieve the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses on both elements of mens rea and their problems. Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion also identifies the role of the judges, the role of Parliament, the Law Commission, potential avenues for reform or the influence of policy in decisionmaking.

Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate material in a very clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. Discuss the extent to which this statement is true. Define appropriation as found in section 3 Theft Act Evolution of the concept of conduct which constitutes an appropriation and what is meant by the rights of an owner Pitham, McPherson, Skipp, Eddy v Niman, Morris, Gomez Importance, or otherwise, of consent in appropriation Lawrence, Morris, Fritschy, Dobson, Gomez, Gallasso, Atakpu Breadth of appropriation which can cover a situation when a defendant comes by property innocently but later assumes the rights of an owner Difficulties seen in cases relating to gifts of property Hopkins and Kendrick, Hinks Difficulties of knowing when an appropriation starts and ends and its implications in other offences such as robbery and burglary Hale, Lockley Problems caused by associated difficulties in dishonesty Explain where the law stands now.

Appropriation now so wide that it overlaps with offence which was covered by section 15 Theft Act and now fraud. Candidates are unlikely to achieve the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses on both appropriation and its problems. Candidates are unlikely to achieve the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses on both intoxication and its problems. Sarah screams. Colin grabs Sarahs coat and then punches her in the face which breaks her nose and causes her to fall to the ground.

Gregory, a passerby, runs to help Sarah. Colin lunges wildly at Gregory with the knife and slashes Gregorys hand, causing severe bleeding. Colin takes aim and kicks Sarah in the stomach, causing serious internal injuries. Colin runs off. Sarah and Gregory are taken to hospital.

Nicola, who is wearing a white coat, tells Gregory he needs stitches. Gregory agrees and Nicola is stitching his hand when Doctor Crowley comes into the room and says to Nicola, Stop, youre only a student! Discuss the potential criminal liability of both Colin and Nicola, including any relevant defences.

Explain the defence of consent in the context of a medical procedure: Can be given for physical benefit Needs to be genuine based on the identity of the person concerned and the act consented to Richardson, Tabassum. Explain mistaken need for self defence: Mistake need only be honest as to need for selfdefence Williams Needs to be an imminent threat Force used to be proportionate. Identify assault occasioning actual bodily harm section 47 Offences Against the Person Act Identify unlawful and malicious wounding or inflicting grievous bodily harm section 20 Offences Against the Person Act Identify unlawful and malicious wounding or causing grievous bodily harm with intent section 18 Offences Against the Person Act Identify the defence of consent.

Identify mistaken need for selfdefence. In the case of the waving of the knife: Putting Sarah in fear so as to make her scream constitutes the actus reus of common assault Colin is at least, subjectively reckless, if not intentional, in his action. In the case of grabbing Sarahs coat: Touching clothes is enough to constitute the actus reus of battery Colin appears to do this intentionally. In the case of punching Sarah so as to break her nose and causing her to fall to the floor: Likely to satisfy section 47 as Colin has put Sarah in fear and this has led to harm which appears to interfere with health or comfort Colins act is probably intentional.

In the case of slashing Gregorys hand: Likely to satisfy section 20 as it constitutes a wound Colin has acted recklessly in that he foresees the risk of some harm Note that CPS charging standards could reduce the charge to section In the case of kicking Sarah in the stomach: Likely to satisfy section 18 as the injuries are serious and Colin appears to act intentionally Possible question as to whether he intends serious harm.

In the case of Nicola stitching Gregorys hand: Likely to be section 18 or section 20 in terms of the actus reus Nicola would appear to act intentionally but section 18 requires an intention to do GBH and so Nicolas liability is restricted to section 20 Credit argument that Nicola applies force but does not harm and so conviction could only be for battery Credit argument that Nicola does not apply unlawful force on the basis that Gregory consented Gregorys consent may not be valid as there is nothing to suggest he would have consented had he known Nicola was only a student and it could be argued that her wearing a white coat led Gregory, not unreasonably, to believe she was a doctor Credit a valid defence of consent if a candidate argues that Gregory did consent to the act by Nicola.

Candidates are unlikely to achieve the descriptor for level 5 AO1 and AO2 without identification, discussion and application of all the areas of law raised by the question. G Mark Scheme January 36 Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate material in a very clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. Samir makes Anya have sex with his friends and is violent when drunk. Anya has tried to commit suicide several times and her doctor has prescribed antidepressants. Samir comes home drunk, hits Anya and tells her she must have sex with three of his friends later.

Anya takes an overdose of antidepressants but is violently sick immediately. Samir laughs at Anya and tells her to be ready to meet his friends in two hours. Anya thinks for an hour and decides she has had enough. Samir has fallen asleep watching television.

Mark Schemes for the Units January 2010: Advanced GCE A2 H534 Advanced Subsidiary GCE AS H134

Anya grabs a heavy lamp and smashes it over Samirs head repeatedly, killing him. Discuss the criminal liability, if any, of Anya. Define and explain the offence of voluntary manslaughter as murder reduced by the use of a specific and partial defence. Define and explain the defence of provocation section 3 Homicide Act Need for evidence of provocation Acott, Rossiter Need for something said or done or both together Baille, Doughty Need for a sudden and temporary loss of control subject to the possibility of slow burn Duffy, Ibrams and Gregory, Thornton, Ahluwalia, Humphreys Courts will accept all evidence of things said or done as relevant to cumulative provocation Humphreys Application of the reasonable man test and relevant characteristics Camplin, Holley, Mohammed, Karimi and James, Moses, Weller, Miao.

Define and explain the defence of diminished responsibility section 2 Homicide Act Need for an abnormality of mind Byrne Need for substantial impairment Sanderson, Lloyd Need for the cause to be internal Dietschmann Need for the cause to be specified Gittens, Seers, Ahluwalia, Hobson Requirement of medical evidence.

Identify voluntary manslaughter. Identify defence of provocation section 3 Homicide Act Identify defence of diminished responsibility section 2 Homicide Act In the case of Samirs death: Anyas hitting him over the head will satisfy the actus reus of unlawful killing and the fact that she did so repeatedly when feeling like she could not take anymore suggests the specific intent necessary for a murder charge. Conclude that if provocation is unavailable Anya is likely to succeed using the defence of diminished responsibility and so be convicted of voluntary manslaughter.

Jin watches Amy squeeze into the queue ahead of him. Jin is angry and tries to push Amy out of the queue. Amy loses her balance and falls into an elderly couple, Fred and Wanda. Fred has a heart condition and the shock causes him to have a heart attack. Wanda falls; she suffers from brittle bone disease and breaks her hip. In hospital Fred is put on a lifesupport machine but dies three hours later. Wanda recovers but before she goes home Doctor Sugar gives her an antibiotic injection. He is busy and does not check whether Wanda has any allergies.

Wanda has a massive allergic reaction and dies. Discuss the criminal liability, if any, of both Jin and Doctor Sugar for the manslaughter of Fred and Wanda. Define and explain gross negligence manslaughter: Was there a duty of care? Was the duty of care breached? Was there a risk of death and did death result? Was the negligence such as to make the defendant criminally liable in the eyes of the jury? Define and explain chain of causation: Causation in fact defendant to be a but for cause and make more than a minimal contribution to the death of the victim White, Kimsey Causation in law was the defendants act the operative and substantial cause of harm?

Pagett, Church Need to take your victim as you find them Blaue Consideration whether the chain of causation is broken by medical treatment Smith, Cheshire, Jordan. Credit reference to subjective reckless manslaughter: Was there a risk of death or serious harm to the victim?

Did the defendant see the risk and decide to run it? Assessment Objective 2 20 Identify involuntary manslaughter. Identify gross negligence manslaughter. Credit reference to subjective reckless manslaughter. Wanda: Although J ins act is the origin of Wandas death it would appear that, since she has made a good recovery and is about to be discharged, the chain of causation may be broken by the act of Doctor Sugar. In the case of Doctor Sugar: Fred - No liability. G Mark Scheme January 41 Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate material in a very clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology.

She has a gun in her pocket. Outside the shop she pulls out the gun but changes her mind and returns it to her pocket. Elsa still wants to steal some vodka so she enters the shop but discovers that the shop has no vodka. Angry, Elsa kicks a customer, Reynard, bruising his leg. Elsa runs out of the shop slamming the glass door so hard it shatters. Evaluate the accuracy of each of the four statements A, B, C, and D individually, as they apply to the facts in the above scenario.

Statement A: Elsa commits attempted robbery when she gets the gun out of her pocket. Statement B: Elsa does not commit section 9 1 a burglary when she enters the shop. Statement C: Elsa commits robbery when she kicks Reynard. Statement D: Elsa commits section 9 1 b burglary when she breaks the shop door. Reason that an attempt requires an act which is more than merely preparatory to a substantive offence Reason that pulling the gun out of her pocket is getting ready to commit the crime Reason that the fact Elsa does this whilst outside and then puts the gun back in her pocket probably means she has not embarked on the crime proper Reason that Elsa does not commit the offence of attempted robbery Conclude that the statement is inaccurate.

Reason that this offence requires Elsa to enter a building or part of a building as a trespasser with an intention to steal, commit GBH or commit damage Reason that completion of the offence does not require the substantive offence to be committed G Mark Scheme January 43 Reason that the fact that the shop has no vodka is irrelevant Reason that the offence is complete at the moment of Elsas entry because she is a trespasser and the owner of the shop would not have allowed her to enter if her intention had been known Conclude that the statement is inaccurate.

Reason that robbery requires the use or threat of force before or at the time of stealing and in order to steal Reason that kicking Reynard would be enough for force Reason that Elsa has not committed theft since the shop had no vodka Reason that the two elements are not complete and therefore there is no robbery Conclude that the statement is inaccurate. Reason that this offence requires Elsa, having entered a building or part of a building as a trespasser, goes on to steal, attempt to steal, commit grievous bodily harm or attempt to commit grievous bodily harm Reason that Elsa has entered as a trespasser as the owner of the shop is unlikely to have allowed her to enter if her intention had been known Reason that the smashing of the door is criminal damage Reason that this is not a substantive offence included in section 9 1 b Conclude that the statement is inaccurate.

G Mark Scheme January 44 8 Jerome owns a riverside hotel. Simon, the barman, is told not to serve intoxicated customers. Simon sells lager to Tony who is clearly very drunk. Part of Simons job is to clean the drains weekly but he often fails to do this. As a result, toxic chemicals build up in the drains and leak into the river, killing fish. Jerome buys meat which a vet has checked. The meat makes the hotel customers ill. Jerome lets a house a mile away to students. The police raid the house and find that the students are growing cannabis plants.

Statement A: Jerome commits a strict liability offence when Simon sells lager to Tony. Statement B: Jerome does not commit a strict liability offence when the fish die. Statement C: Jerome commits a strict liability offence as the house where the students are growing cannabis plants belongs to him. Statement D: Jerome does not commit a strict liability offence when customers are ill after eating meat in his hotel. Reason that the actus reus is selling lager to someone who is already drunk Reason that as the owner it is J eromes responsibility to make sure his staff check on the sobriety of customers Reason that the actus reus occurs when Simon serves the customer Reason that this does not change the fact that J erome is liable Conclude that the statement is accurate.

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Reason that the actus reus occurs when toxic chemicals enter the river Reason that as owner it is J eromes responsibility to prevent this happening Reason that the actus reus occurs when the fish die Reason that J erome is liable even though Simon failed to do his job Conclude that the statement is inaccurate. G Mark Scheme January 45 Statement C: Jerome commits a strict liability offence as the house where the students are growing cannabis plants belongs to him. Reason that the actus reus is being concerned in growing cannabis Reason that because of the social stigma involved proof of mens rea will be needed Reason that the house being a mile away means J erome does not have mens rea Reason that therefore J erome is not liable Conclude that the statement is inaccurate.

Reason that the actus reus involves serving unfit food Reason that J eromes responsibility is to serve safe food Reason that the vets failure to check properly is no defence he has done this by having the meat checked Reason that J erome does commit an offence Conclude that the statement is inaccurate. The first four levels are very similar to the four levels for AS units. The addition of a fifth level reflects the expectation of higher achievement by candidates at the end of a twoyear course of study. There are four levels of assessment of AO3 in the A2 units. The requirements and number of levels differ between AS and A2 units to reflect the expectation of higher achievement by candidates at the end of a twoyear course of study.

Level Assessment Objective 1 Assessment Objective 2 Assessment Objective 3 includes QWC 5 Wide ranging, accurate, detailed knowledge with a clear and confident understanding of relevant concepts and principles. Where appropriate candidates will be able to elaborate with wide citation of relevant statutes and caselaw. Ability to identify correctly the relevant and important points of criticism showing good understanding of current debate and proposals for reform or identify all of the relevant points of law in issue.

A high level of ability to develop arguments or apply points of law accurately and pertinently to a given factual situation, and reach a cogent, logical and wellinformed conclusion. An accomplished presentation of logical and coherent arguments and communicates relevant material in a very clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology.

Discuss the fairness of the decision eg in terms of protection of women; Link to any relevant case for development eg consent in a marital context Clarence, to sexual activity Brown, Donovan, AGs Reference, Emmett, tattooing Burrell v Harmer Make any other relevant comment. Candidates will not satisfy the level 5 descriptor without discussing the critical point and without making at least some reference to fairness identified in the command and will not reach maximum marks without using a linked case for the purpose of showing development as required by the overarching theme.

Assessment Objective 3 4 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate relevant material in a clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. Discuss how accurately the above statement reflects the judicial development of the law on the offences in sections 18, 20 and 47 of the Offences Against the Person Act Candidates will not satisfy the level 5 descriptor without clear, full definitions of all offences and cases illustrating all three offences.

NB No AO1 credit can be given for common law assault which is not covered in the command, although AO2 marks may be available if used as information as part of a wider comment. Malicious generally accepted as meaning reckless in section 20 but in Mowatt it was held that the defendant must foresee some harm eg some battery, but not necessarily the harm inflicted the requirement of the ulterior intent and the fact that section 18 can occur in a combination of ways also throws up a number of apparent inconsistencies where the defendant causes GBH with intent to cause GBH the word malicious has been held to be superfluous and it is impossible to recklessly intend Mowatt [] but if the defendant is charged with malicious wounding with intent to cause GBH then it is possible for the defendant to be reckless as to the wounding while having intent to commit the GBH if the defendant is charged with causing GBH with intent to resist arrest then malicious is clearly not superfluous since otherwise the defendant would be guilty without any foresight of harm resulting Credit any reference to Law Commission proposals.

Reach any sensible conclusion. Candidates will not satisfy the level 5 descriptor without engaging in a discussion with some clear focus on the quote, i. Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion does this and identifies the role played by judges in developing the law. Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion identifies the role played by judges in defining the area, and the justice of their decision making.

They are both aged nineteen. Discuss whether a conviction for a nonfatal offence against the person is possible in each of the following situations: a Nick often slaps Patti hard. Nick tells their friends that Patti likes him to slap her, but Patti tells their friends that she does not really like it she just lets Nick do it because she wants to keep him happy.

Patti tells Nick that she is dumping him. When Nick tries to get back with Patti, she waves her fists at Nick and threatens that if he ever comes near her again that she will kill him. Patti becomes so alarmed and depressed by the texts that she suffers a psychiatric illness. NB For maximum marks must consider whether a conviction is possible. In the case of b : Identify that the most likely offence is common assault; Identify that Patti must cause Nick to apprehend an imminent battery; Identify that while the threat is a very serious one the words used may negate an assault; Consider that otherwise there are both threatening actions and threatening words which may make a conviction possible.

In the case of c : Identify that the most appropriate offence is section 47 assault occasioning actual bodily harm also that on this basis the threat is one that is likely to produce psychiatric harm; or Credit explanation of section 20 OAPA with appropriate reasoning; Identify that Ireland; Burstow has accepted that psychiatric harm is sufficient for actual bodily harm- and that Patti has suffered such an injury; Identify also that silent phone calls led to a conviction in Ireland; Burstow and the texts may also do so here.

Ability to identify correctly the relevant and important points of criticism, showing good understanding of current debate and proposals for reform, or identify all of the relevant points of law in issue. G Mark Scheme January 54 G Law of Contract The mark scheme must be read in conjunction with the matrix of levels of assessment. Discuss the reasons for having four different categories of misrepresentation in light of the statement above. There are many AO2 themes that can be discussed in answering this question, candidates would not be expected to make all these points in order to achieve a level 5 mark.

Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses specifically on the detailed remedies for each kind of misrepresentation. Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion also includes the apparent difficulties in applying the judgement in the Smith New Court case as identified above.

Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate relevant material in a clear and effective manner using approprate legal terminology. Explain the exceptions developed by the courts: The trust device; where an implied trust was used to avoid the rules of privity, Les Affreteurs Reunis v Walford; Restrictive covenants; where restrictions on the use of land can be passed to subsequent purchasers, Tulk v Moxhay; Collateral contracts; where a new contract was imposed by the court between a person making a representation and the person who acted on that representation, Shanklin Pier v Detel Products; Special cases, where the courts have decided that one person may sue to recover losses suffered by another party, Jackson v Horizon Holidays, Woodar v Wimpey, Linden Gardens Trust v Lenesta Sludge; Credit can also be given for mentioning other ways that the rule of agency may be avoided at common law: assignment, agency, suing under the law of negligence.

Explain statutory exceptions: Married Womens Property Act and Road Traffic Act; where someone not a party to the original contract may enforce an insurance policy; Contract Rights of Third Parties Act C RTP Act ; allowing a party who was intended to benefit from a contract, which they were not a party to, to enforce the contract in their own right. G Mark Scheme January 58 Assessment Objective 2 20 Discuss reasons why the rule of privity can cause injustice, these can include but are not limited to : Preventing a party from benefiting in the way intended by the original parties; Preventing a sub contractor from being liable to the original contracting party; Preventing a consumer from benefiting from consumer protection legislation if they did not purchase goods themselves; Preventing a manufacturer of goods enforcing contract terms against an eventual retail seller of goods.

Discuss how well the courts have succeeded in avoiding the rule of privity: Most of the common law exceptions have been narrow in scope such as collateral contracts ; Most can be said to have been unpredictable to the parties concerned. Discuss whether the statutory exceptions to the rule have been more satisfactory: They have been prospective in effect; They have tended to be quite narrow, mostly involving insurance up until ; The C RTP Act being the first statute to give a general exception to the rule; The C RTP Act ignoring the general requirement that a party who wishes to enforce a contract must give consideration; The C RTP Act being vague about who is intended to benefit from a contract and thus enforce contractual rights.

Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses on the detailed changes brought about by the Contract Rights of Third Parties Act Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion includes the merits of parliamentary reform of privity as against the piecemeal judicial reform that preceded the act.

Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate relevant material in a clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. Discuss whether the law on undue influence is clear and relevant in todays society in light of the statement above.

Assessment Objective 2 20 Consider whether it is satisfactory that there is no definition of actual undue influence and that it is up to the court to examine each case on its merits Consider whether the traditional list of relationships that can lead to a presumption of undue influence, including that between spiritual advisor and disciple, and doctor and patient, is relevant in a modern society where such people may no longer enjoy a privileged position Consider whether any claim of presumed undue influence should be required to be based upon a proven relationship of trust existing between the parties Consider whether Lord Dennings view, that there should be a general right to avoid a contract that has been based on an inequality of bargaining power, as expressed in Lloyds Bank v Bundy, should be adopted by the courts Consider whether a coowner of property, such as a spouse, is now adequately protected after the judgement in Etridge.

Consider whether the requirement of advice is sufficient to protect someone from the reality of an overbearing relationship Consider whether banks should allow someone to enter a contract that is so obviously disadvantageous that no sensible person would do so. Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without a discussion that focuses on the judgement in the Etridge case. Stretch and challenge and synoptic consideration can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion is broadened into the broadness of the general principle of undue influence and the difficulties in a solicitor giving adequate advice in a constructive notice situation.

G Mark Scheme January 60 Assessment Objective 3 5 Present logical and coherent arguments and communicate relevant material in a clear and effective manner using appropriate legal terminology. He ordered a sofa for and a green table, both from Lux Home Products website. After placing the order, he immediately received an email thanking him for the order and confirming that the goods would be dispatched the following day. However, the next day he received another email from Lux informing him that the sofa was wrongly priced and should have been The table arrives two days later but Sanjit does not like the colour and wishes to return it.

Sanjit also visited an online auction site and placed a bid for 20 for a colourful rug. At the end of the auction Sanjits bid was the highest but the seller emailed him to say that the price was too low and the rug has been withdrawn. Advise whether Sanjit is able to buy the sofa for and the rug for 20 and whether he is able to return the green table.

G Mark Scheme January 62 Assessment Objective 2 20 The sofa Identify that this is an internet contract and that the goods on the webpage are likely to be an invitation to treat and the order was a bilateral offer; Discuss whether the email response from the company was an acceptance or merely an acknowledgement of receipt of the offer; Conclude that either the email was an acceptance and the contract has now become binding, or that the email was an acknowledgement and that the company was still entitled to reject his offer.

The table Identify that there has probably been an offer and acceptance in this case; Identify that the Distance Selling Regulations give him a right to cancel the contract within 7 working days; Conclude that he does not have to keep the table but that he must return it undamaged within the 7 day time limit. The rug Discuss whether this is an auction without reserve, identify that if it is then he has accepted the unilateral offer by making the highest bid. Explain that in this case it will be too late to withdraw the goods as this would amount to a revocation that comes too late, being after the acceptance; Explain that there is no requirement that the 20 is a fair price for the rug, as long as it is considered to be sufficient consideration; Conclude that he is entitled to the rug.

Alternatively discuss whether there might have been a reserve price for the rug, explaining that if there is he has made a bilateral offer to buy the rug which can be accepted or rejected by the seller; Conclude that he is not entitled to the rug. Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without an answer that includes detailed AO1 content on each of the three aspects of this question, including the Distance Selling Regulations.

Stretch and challenge can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion includes the two different kinds of auction in the third scenario, both with and without a reserve price. They agreed to split equally any money that either of them won. The tournament organisers include a term that they do not accept any legal liability to pay winnings. Bob won the tournament; however the organisers said that too few people had entered the tournament and that they could only pay 5, Bob was upset at this and said he would not pay anything to Alun.

Bob had arranged with Laine, another friend, to get a lift home from the tournament. Bob said he would pay 5 towards petrol. When it was time to go home he found that Laine had gone without him and he ended up taking a taxi at great expense. Discuss whether or not Bob has formed legally binding contracts with Alun, Laine, and the golf tournament organisers. G Mark Scheme January 64 Assessment Objective 2 20 Alun Identify that this is a domestic contract between friends and thus at first glance there is no intention to create a binding contract; Identify that in gambling contracts where people agree to share winnings the courts have been willing to rebut the presumption and find that the parties did have an intention to be bound; Conclude that Bob is liable to pay half the prize money to Alun.

Laine Identify that this also appears to be a domestic contract and thus not one with legal consequences; Discuss the view of the courts, that the unlikelihood of one party ever suing does not prevent the presumption from being rebutted; Discuss the circumstances here, that a service was being offered and that Bob had promised consideration as a share of the petrol costs; Conclude that Laine is liable to Bob in breach of contract. The golf tournament organisers Identify that this is a commercial contract and that the presumption for legal intent applies but also that it can be rebutted by clear words; Identify that clear words appear to have been used to show that the contract is binding in honour only; Consider whether this is an unfair or unreasonable contract term within the legislation; Conclude that there will not be any liability to pay the full 10, unless the words amount to an unfair term or unreasonable exclusion clause.

Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without an answer that includes detailed AO1 content on each of the three aspects of this question, including a discussion of both presumptions and rebuttal. Stretch and challenge can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion includes the possibility of dealing with the organisers clause as an unfair term. She ordered ten salmon from Tom but was annoyed when ten trout were delivered. Tom said that it was a usual term in the fish trade that if salmon were not available trout could be delivered instead. This was correct but Sara had never heard of that term.

When Sara took delivery of a case of wine from Henri she signed a delivery note. The note included a statement that any complaints about the wine had to be made within five working days. The wine turned out to be undrinkable but Sara did not discover this until two weeks after delivery. Sara also placed an order with Bella, a baker, for 50 bread rolls to be delivered every day. She was surprised to find that the deliveries were made at 1.

Advise whether Sara has a valid claim for breach of contract against Tom, Henri and Bella. Explain that the time at which a contract has to be performed is within a reasonable time unless a specific time has been specified within the contract, citing cases such as Astea Ltd v Time Group Ltd.

G Mark Scheme January 66 Assessment Objective 2 20 Tom Identify that the term about the substitution of the fish was not an express term of the contract; Discuss whether there might be an implied term through the officious bystander test, but that this would fail because Sara had never heard of that term; That the term may have been implied by custom within the trade, but that this test may not be satisfied because it appears that the term is not so well established that everyone had heard of it, again because Sara had never heard of it; Conclude that the delivery of trout was probably a breach of contract and that Sara should be able to claim damages.

Henri Identify that the test for incorporation of terms does not appear to have been satisfied because the delivery note was not a contractual document; Discuss whether the term may have been incorporated by course of dealings, if the delivery note was always the same and had been signed on many occasions beforehand it could be argued that Sara should have been aware of the term; Discuss whether the term was harsh or unusual enough to have made it necessary for Henri to point out the term or make it particularly prominent; Draw any reasonable conclusion based on the discussion of the law.

Bella Identify that there does not seem to have been any discussion of the time at which the bread was to be delivered; Identify that there might be a claim that the term was implied through business efficacy, but that this test would fail because it is probably not a term that is absolutely required in order to make sense of the contract; Discuss whether delivery at 1. Candidates are unlikely to satisfy the descriptor for level 5 AO2 without an answer that includes both implied terms and incorporation of the delivery note as an express term.

Stretch and challenge can be demonstrated by candidates whose discussion includes different ways in which an implied term may be incorporated. He would like to clear out his garden because he is planning a garden party.